Ethereum - scheduled applications

1.) Etherium Casper

Casper is not a specific project. It is a mix of two research projects currently being carried out by the Ethereum Development Team. These are Casper, FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget and Casper, CBC (correct-by-construction).

Casper FFG aka Vitaliks Casper is a hybrid POW / POS consensus mechanism under development. This is the version of Casper that should be implemented first. It is quite designed to facilitate the transition to the "proof of stake". The way it is designed is that there is a "proof of stake" protocol superimposed on the "proof of work" ethash protocol. While the blocks will still be exploited via POW, every fifty block will be a POS control point, where the purpose is evaluated by a network of validators. The implementation of Ethereum Casper would have several advantages. They can all be listed under the following categories: Assistance for decentralization, energy efficiency, economic security, scaling and transition to POS.

People do not adapt easily to change. When they get used to something, it's very difficult for them to get out of this comfort zone.

Even though Casper is not yet officially used, the inclusion in the test system is an important milestone before the final adoption of ethereum's own proof of stake system. In addition to the energy savings compared to the proof-of-work consensus, Casper hopes for faster-processing transactions and decentralization of the network structure. 

2.) Etherium Sharding

The concept derives from "shard" and means in the architecture of databases that one decomposes a database into different partitions and stores them on different servers. This obviously improves the performance of the database as well as search queries. The fact that sharding (the breaking up of a blockchain into individual shards), makes the shards stronger than their single computers is easy to understand. However, no one really knows how it would work and if it’s even possible. After all, the unit of the blockchain is what makes it special. The basic idea is to incorporate the function of randomly assigning validators into the Caspar contracts to individual partitions of the blockchain or transactions so that they no longer have to perform the complete verification of all transactions and the execution of all contracts, but instead only a part of it. Thus, proof of stake becomes the basis for distributing the load of the blockchain to different knots


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